Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία derive from “beauty” (kallos) and “to write” (graphein)) is the art of forming beautiful symbols by hand and arranging them well. it’s a set of skills and techniques for positioning and inscribing words so they show integrity, harmony, some sort of ancestry, rhythm and creative fire.
In the early Middle Ages, there was no way of replicating a Book other than copying it by hand because printing wasn´t invented until the late middle ages. Common at the time where big illustrated capital letters at the beginning of every paragraphs or sites so called Initials or drop caps. Generally, a lot of books were carefully illustrated in the Middle Ages, most of the time with geometric decorations or colorful figures.
The tools that calligraphers used to create such beautiful text were comprised of carefully constructed wooden implements or feathered quills that were dipped in ink.
Today’s calligraphers have a wider toolset to choose from, like specialised calligraphy pens with angled nibs.